Monday, May 25, 2020

Temperance Movement and Prohibition Timeline

The 19th and early 20th century saw considerable organizing for temperance or prohibition.  Temperance usually refers to seeking to inspire individuals to moderate liquor use or abstain from drinking liquor. Prohibition usually refers to making it illegal to manufacture or sell alcohol. The Effects on Families   The effects of drunkenness on families―in a society in which women had limited rights to divorce or custody, or even to control their own earnings―and the growing evidence of medical effects of alcohol, prompted efforts to convince individuals to take the pledge to abstain from alcohol, and then to persuade states, localities and eventually the nation to prohibit the manufacture and sale of alcohol. Some religious groups, notably the Methodists, believed that drinking liquor was sinful. The Progressive Movement By the early 20th century, the liquor industry, like other industries, had extended its control. In many cities, saloons and taverns were controlled or owned by liquor companies. The growing presence of women in the political sphere was accompanied by and reinforced by the belief that women had a special role in preserving families and health and thus to work to end liquor consumption, manufacture and sale. The Progressive movement often took the side of temperance and prohibition. The 18th Amendment   In 1918 and 1919, the federal government passed the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, making manufacture, transportation, and sale of intoxicating liquors illegal under its power to regulate interstate commerce.  The proposal became the Eighteenth Amendment in 1919 and took effect in 1920.  It was the First Amendment to include a time limit for ratification, though it was quickly ratified by 46 of the 48 states. Decriminalizing the Liquor Industry   It was soon clear that criminalizing liquor had increased the power of organized crime and the corruption of law enforcement, and that consumption of liquor continued.  By the early 1930s, public sentiment was on the side of decriminalizing the liquor industry, and in 1933, the 21st Amendment overturned the 18th and prohibition ended. Some states continued to permit a local option for prohibition or to control liquor statewide. The following timeline shows the chronology of some of the major events in the movement to convince individuals to abstain from liquor and the movement to prohibit commerce in liquor. Timeline Year Event 1773 John Wesley, the founder of Methodism, preached that drinking alcohol was sinful. 1813 Connecticut Society for the Reformation of Morals founded. 1813 Massachusetts Society for the Suppression of Intemperance founded. 1820s The consumption of alcohol in the U.S. was 7 gallons per capita per year. 1826 Boston area ministers founded the American Temperance Society (ATS). 1831 American Temperance Society had 2,220 local chapters and 170,000 members. 1833 American Temperance Union (ATU) founded, merging two existing national temperance organizations. 1834 American Temperance Society had 5,000 local chapters and 1 million members. 1838 Massachusetts prohibited the sale of alcohol in amounts less than 15 gallons. 1839 September 28: Frances Willard born. 1840 Consumption of alcohol in the U.S. had been lowered to 3 gallons of alcohol per year per capita. 1840 Massachusetts repealed its 1838 prohibition law but permitted local option. 1840 Washington Temperance Society founded in Baltimore on April 2, named for the first U.S. president. Its members were reformed heavy drinkers from the working class who "took the pledge" to abstain from alcohol, and the movement to establish local Washington Temperance Societies was called the Washingtonian movement. 1842 John B. Gough "took the pledge" and began lecturing against drinking, becoming a major orator for the movement. 1842 Washington Society publicized that they had inspired 600,000 abstinence pledges. 1843 Washington Societies had mostly disappeared. 1845 Maine passed statewide prohibition; other states followed with what were called "Maine laws." 1845 In Massachusetts, under the 1840 local option law, 100 towns had local prohibition laws. 1846 November 25: Carrie Nation (or Carry) born in Kentucky: future prohibition activist whose method was vandalism. 1850 Consumption of alcohol in the U.S. had been lowered to 2 gallons of alcohol per year per capita. 1851 Maine prohibited the sale or making of any alcoholic beverage. 1855 13 of the 40 states had prohibition laws. 1867 Carrie (or Carry) Amelia Moore married Dr. Charles Gloyd; he died in 1869 of the effects of alcoholism. Her second marriage was in 1874, to David A. Nation, a minister, and attorney. 1869 National Prohibition Party founded. 1872 National Prohibition Party nominated James Black (Pennsylvania) for President; he received 2,100 votes 1873 December 23: Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) organized. 1874 Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU) officially founded at its Cleveland national convention. Annie Wittenmyer elected president and advocated focusing on the single issue of prohibition. 1876 World's Women's Christian Temperance Union founded. 1876 National Prohibition Party nominated Green Clay Smith (Kentucky) for President; he received 6,743 votes 1879 Frances Willard became president of the WCTU. She led the organization in being active in working for a living wage, the 8-hour day, women's suffrage, peace, and other issues. 1880 National Prohibition Party nominated Neal Dow (Maine) for President; he received 9,674 votes 1881 WCTU membership was 22,800. 1884 National Prohibition Party nominated John P. St. John (Kansas) for President; he received 147,520 votes. 1888 The Supreme Court struck down state prohibition laws if they forbid the sale of alcohol that was transported into the state in its original passage, on the basis of the federal power to regulate interstate commerce. Thus, hotels and clubs could sell an unopened bottle of liquor, even if the state banned alcohol sales. 1888 Frances Willard elected president of the World's WCTU. 1888 National Prohibition Party nominated Clinton B. Fisk (New Jersey) for President; he received 249,813 votes. 1889 Carry Nation and her family moved to Kansas, where she began a chapter of the WCTU and began working to enforce the liquor ban in that state. 1891 WCTU membership was 138,377. 1892 National Prohibition Party nominated John Bidwell (California) for President; he received 270,770 votes, the largest any of their candidates ever received. 1895 American Anti-Saloon League founded. (Some sources date this to 1893) 1896 National Prohibition Party nominated Joshua Levering (Maryland) for President; he received 125,072 votes. In a party fight, Charles Bentley of Nebraska was also nominated; he received 19,363 votes. 1898 February 17: Frances Willard died. Lillian M. N. Stevens succeeded her as president of the WCTU, serving until 1914. 1899 Kansas prohibition advocate, nearly six foot tall Carry Nation, began a 10-year campaign against illegal saloons in Kansas, destroying furniture and liquor containers with an ax while dressed as a Methodist deaconess. She was often jailed; lecture fees and ax sales paid her fines. 1900 National Prohibition Party nominated John G. Woolley (Illinois) for President; he received 209,004 votes. 1901 WCTU membership was 158,477. 1901 WCTU took a position against the playing of golf on Sundays. 1904 National Prohibition Party nominated Silas C. Swallow (Pennsylvania) for President; he received 258,596 votes. 1907 The state constitution of Oklahoma included prohibition. 1908 In Massachusetts, 249 towns and 18 cities banned alcohol. 1908 National Prohibition Party nominated Eugene W. Chapin (Illinois) for President; he received 252,821 votes. 1909 There were more saloons than schools, churches or libraries in the United States: one per 300 citizens. 1911 WCTU membership was 245,299. 1911 Carry Nation, prohibition activist who destroyed saloon property from 1900-1910, died. She was buried in Missouri, where the local WCTU erected a tombstone with the epitaph "She hath done what she could." 1912 National Prohibition Party nominated Eugene W. Chapin (Illinois) for President; he received 207,972 votes. Woodrow Wilson won the election. 1912 Congress passed a law overturning the Supreme Court's 1888 ruling, permitting states to forbid all alcohol, even in containers that had been sold in interstate commerce. 1914 Anna Adams Gordon became the fourth president of the WCTU, serving until 1925. 1914 The Anti-Saloon League proposed a constitutional amendment to prohibit the sale of alcohol. 1916 Sidney J. Catts elected Florida Governor as a Prohibition Party candidate. 1916 National Prohibition Party nominated J. Frank Hanly (Indiana) for President; he received 221,030 votes. 1917 Wartime prohibition passed. Anti-German feelings transferred to being against beer. Prohibition advocates argued that the liquor industry was an unpatriotic use of resources, especially grain. 1917 Senate and House passed resolutions with the language of the 18th Amendment and sent it to the states for ratification. 1918 The following states ratified the 18th Amendment: Mississippi, Virginia, Kentucky, North Dakota, South Carolina, Maryland, Montana, Texas, Delaware, South Dakota, Massachusetts, Arizona, Georgia, Louisiana, Florida. Connecticut voted against ratification. 1919 January 2 - 16: the following states ratified the 18th Amendment: Michigan, Ohio, Oklahoma, Idaho, Maine, West Virginia, California, Tennessee, Washington, Arkansas, Illinois, Indiana, Kansas, Alabama, Colorado, Iowa, New Hampshire, Oregon, North Carolina, Utah, Nebraska, Missouri, Wyoming. 1919 January 16: 18th Amendment ratified, establishing prohibition as the law of the land. The ratification was certified on January 29. 1919 January 17 - February 25: although the requisite number of states had already ratified the 18th Amendment, the following states also ratified it: Minnesota, Wisconsin, New Mexico, Nevada, New York, Vermont, Pennsylvania. Rhode Island became the second (of two) states to vote against ratification. 1919 Congress passed the Volstead Act over President Woodrow Wilson's veto, establishing procedures and powers to enforce prohibition under the 18th Amendment. 1920 January: Prohibition Era began. 1920 National Prohibition Party nominated Aaron S. Watkins (Ohio) for President; he received 188,685 votes. 1920 August 26: the 19th Amendment, granting the vote to women, became law. (The Day the Suffrage Battle Was Won 1921 WCTU membership was 344,892. 1922 Although the 18th Amendment had already been ratified, New Jersey added its ratification vote on March 9, becoming the 48th of 48 states to take a position on the Amendment, and the 46th state to vote for ratification. 1924 National Prohibition Party nominated Herman P. Faris (Missouri) for President, and a woman, Marie C. Brehm (California), for Vice President; they received 54,833 votes. 1925 Ella Alexander Boole became president of the WCTU, serving until 1933. 1928 National Prohibition Party nominating William F. Varney (New York) for president, narrowly failing to endorse Herbert Hoover instead. Varney received 20,095 votes. Herbert Hoover ran on the party ticket in California and won 14,394 votes from that party line. 1931 Membership in the WCTU was at its peak, 372,355. 1932 National Prohibition Party nominated William D. Upshaw (Georgia) for President; he received 81,916 votes. 1933 Ida Belle Wise Smith became president of the WCTU, serving until 1944. 1933 21st Amendment passed, repealing the 18th Amendment and prohibition. 1933 December: 21st Amendment took effect, repealing the 18th Amendment and thus prohibition. 1936 National Prohibition Party nominated D. Leigh Colvin (New York) for President; he received 37,667 votes. 1940 National Prohibition Party nominated Roger W. Babson (Massachusetts) for President; he received 58,743 votes. 1941 WCTU membership had fallen to 216,843. 1944 Mamie White Colvin became president of the WCTU, serving until 1953. 1944 National Prohibition Party nominated Claude A. Watson (California) for President; he received 74,735 votes 1948 National Prohibition Party nominated Claude A. Watson (California) for President; he received 103,489 votes 1952 National Prohibition Party nominated Stuart Hamblen (California) for President; he received 73,413 votes. The party continued to run candidates in subsequent elections, never gaining as many as 50,000 votes again. 1953 Agnes Dubbs Hays became president of the WCTU, serving until 1959.

Thursday, May 14, 2020

Stem Cell Regulation - 633 Words

Skin with its hair follicle is an excellent system to study molecular mechanism of stem cell regulation. Due to constant need of tissue regeneration, it has abundant number of stem cells. Hair follicle consist of a permanent portion- sebaceous gland and below it is a bulge area, which houses- Hair follicle epidermal stem cells(HFSCs). Bulge also provides niche for melanocyte stem cells interspersed between HFSCs. Behavior of the two stem cells is well coordinated. Differentiating melanocytes transfer pigment to terminally differentiated hair follicles (Nishimura et al., 2002; Tanimura et al., 2011; Rabbani et al., 2011).Hair follicle undergoes cyclical bouts of 3 phases-anagen (phase of active growth), catagen (destruction phase) and telogen (rest phase) (Hardy, 1992). HFSCs give rise to daughter stem cells which are retained in the bulge area and others form, either epidermal progenitors which migrate upwards during tissue repair or it forms hair-matrix progenitors which migrate bel ow to form hair shaft (Niemann Watt 2002; Oshima et al., 2001; Taylor et al. 2000). In early 1990s, HFSCs were located in the bulge region by label retention studies (Cotsarelis et al., 1990; Morris and Potten, 1994). Later in 2001, presence of HFSCs in bulge area was confirmed by transplantation experiments. When lac-z labeled bulge region from adult mice was transplanted into hairless mice, lac-z labeled cells formed morphologically distinct hair follicle (Oshima et., 2001). Lineage tracingShow MoreRelatedSCI Case Study1591 Words   |  7 Pagesusing stem cell therapy, so I’ll try and provide you with as much information as I know. Currently in Australia and around the world, there are no proven cures for SCI using stem cells, this is according to the Australia and New Zealand Spinal Cord Injury Network (Stem Cell Interventions for Spinal Cord Injury, 2009) and (Steeves et al., 2012), both leading organisations in SCI treatment. There are however, clinical trials and research going on around the world that use stem cells to treatRead MoreStem Cel ls Essay1699 Words   |  7 Pagescontroversial research in stem cells. This technology offers hope to millions who are victims of a multitude of diseases and disorders. It can be used to regrow limbs, create organs, attack genetic diseases, treat malfunctioning bladders, etc. However, this same technology is also one of the most controversial debates in science today. 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Believe it or not stem cells have been in play when it comes to medicine since the 1950’s in France (Steenblock 1). This topic is very controversial and I surmise that it is strongly due to the lack of knowledge when it comes to stem cells and their importance. I, myself, am very intrigued by stem cells and my goal is to define whatRead MoreA Research Study On Stem Cell1225 Words   |  5 Pages My research about stem cells, I will be talking about what a stem cell is. Why are stem cells important from a medical perspective? How are stem cells being used today? Where do scientists get stem cells? Why is so much controversy over the stem cells? How does a zygote develop into a baby? Why a zygote is considered a stem cell? A stem cell is an immature cell that can help reproduce different types of cells throughout the body. There are three types of stem cells that I will be focusing on : adultRead More Stem Cell Research Essay1316 Words   |  6 PagesStem Cell Research What is a Stem Cell? Stems cells are immature cells found in embryos that can develop into any kind of specialized cells. They can form virtually any cell of the human body. These types of stem cells are known as pluripotent cells. Multipotent cells are stem cells that are more mature; they can be found in adults and children. Multipotent cells are not as flexible as pluripotent cells, as they have already developed into more specialized human cells. Benefits of StemRead MoreResearch On Stem Cell Research1582 Words   |  7 Pagesand dilemmas is stem cell research. The conflicts are specific types of stem cells are unethical and not morally right to research on, but not all stem cells are this way. Stem cell research is the study of different types of stem cells and their possible clinical uses. Stem cells can be developed to act as treatments for different types of illnesses and diseases, but currently no push for funding the advancement of research on stem cells are being taken. Even though some stem cells create conflictsRead MoreStem Cell Research And The Medical Field Essay1736 Words   |  7 PagesStem cells have become one of the largest research fields in the Department of Regenerative Medicine. They are often referred to as the â€Å"building blocks of nature† due to their ability to transform into any type of cell in the human body. It has led to the controversy of the possible chance that stem cells can regene rate organs, and cure life threatening diseases. This topic has been publicly discussed among scientists and healthcare professionals. There are different types of stem cells, such asRead MoreThe Controversy Over Stem Cell Research1169 Words   |  5 Pagesyears, stem cell research has become a prominent way of treating: heart disease, cancer, HIV/AIDS, spinal problems, and much more ; moreover, in recent years as Stem cell research became more popular, it has sparked controversy over the religion aspect of stem cell research. Stem cell research begins with culturing an embryonic cell and then injecting the stem cell into the area of concern(Robertson). Pluripotent stem cells are gathered and used to treat the areas, pluripotent stem cells are thoseRead MoreThe Controversy Of Embryonic Stem Cells1034 Words   |  5 PagesFor decades, researchers’ use of stem cells has caused a controversy and the consideration of the ethics of research involving the development, usage, and destruction of human embryos. Most commonly, this controversy focuses on embryonic stem cells. Not all stem cell research involves the creation, usage and destruction of human embryos. For example, adult stem cells, amniotic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells do not involve creating, using or destroying human embryos and thus are

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Sonny s Blues By James Baldwin - 1028 Words

In every individual, a host of socio-historical forces converge and influence the subject’s ideas. Consciously and unconsciously, the individual reflects the confluence of his or her history and culture. In â€Å"Sonny’s Blues†, a short story by James Baldwin, the dominant culture constricts the black individual. Subject to the explicit and latent biases of a racist society, the black population of â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† attempt to endure oppression and suffering and survive in an unforgiving land. However, they can thrive here with the hope and salvation provided by the communal center of African American culture: religion. Written after the abolition of slavery, but before the Civil Rights Movement, â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† transpires in an uncertain era,†¦show more content†¦Aware of the societal policies and practices discriminating against them, the African Americans in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† perceive this societal oppression as a â€Å"darkness† surrounding them. The darkness in â€Å"Sonny’s Blues† is the metaphorical embodiment of their suffering and the eventual culmination of that suffering: death. The narrator remembers the darkness in his youth, when he saw â€Å"the darkness coming, and the darkness in the faces† (11), which frightened him. The narrator was afraid of his destiny, afraid of the brutal reality awaiting him, afraid of the finality of death. He hoped that â€Å"the hand which stroke[d] his forehead [would] never stop — [would] never die†¦ that there [would] never come a time when the old folks [wouldn’t] be around†¦Ã¢â‚¬  (11). This darkness, the darkness of racism and the darkness of death, affects all the black populace of â€Å"Sonny’s Blues.† In response to this darkness, each black character copes in his or her unique way. The narrator leaves the crime-ridden projects of his youth to a better home, wh ere he attempts, under societal oppression, a stable life. Sonny attempts to escape the darkness by playing music and eventually, doing heroin. The narrator, in enduring his pains, finds relative stability in family and work; believing

Tuesday, May 5, 2020

Modafinil on Convergent and Divergent †Free Samples to Students

Question: Discuss about the Modafinil on Convergent and Divergent. Answer: Introduction: The process of Design it includes the way we think and judge a thing and understanding it in a different way. Analysing of certain situations are to done so as to detect the problems in a business is included in this process. There is a need of doing Brain storming so as to detect the various problems and to solve them. Discussion about different characteristics of design it and the problems that are associated with it. I have learned all these things in the lecture that was conducted in the last few weeks. This lecture helps a lot in the to learn about the topic of design it. I have listed the contents which have helped me in understanding the various topics of the lecture. The 1st week consisted of the basics knowledges of design it and we were given an introduction about the topic of design it. The lecture consisted of the basic prospects of design it. The basic discussion regarding the design it included few things like what is Design?, what are the types of thinkings are used for the betterment of anything, what are the basic methodologies behind the brainstorming? and the class has impressively assisted me in learning and understanding the various aspects of a designs along with helping me to explain the process required for and what are the essential needs for creating new designs and advances in social service, commercial and digital contexts by the use of design thinking. After the class was over I was very much aware of the necessary steps required for the process of forming blogs. On the second week of the lecture we were having a session for clearing our doubts and we also discussed about the necessary steps that are to be taken for the purpose of creating new blog and reflections. It greatly helped me increased my ideas about the ways for publishing a new blog and to understand the relation that exists between the designs and the business. In the discussion we included various things like the essential methods, the level of focus and many more. The discussion facilitated the easy learning of the numerous tools associated with the design and how those can be used for innovating new ideas along with the use few things that are technical, in design thinking. DEEP DRIVE approach is an example of one such tool. In the class the lecturer told us to form a group to discuss the new ideas related to the business and for discussing the topics with my group and the lecturer. The class helped me to learn the process of making new poster along with the way of presenting a poster. we also understood the criterias that are essential for our assignment. The 3rd week consisted of the basic theories associated with Design it, Blogging, reflection and its overview. Few aims that helps in reflecting my mind set for business and some of the contents helps in explaining certain features of Design Thinking like the Learning theory, Action Research and Philosophical Worldview were taught to us on 3rd week. The lecturer used some examples so as to help us understand the basic logics of reasoning in which some of the examples consisted of designs and some which do not consist of any designs. Besides this also some theories like the Creative theory, Decision making theory, Team working theory along with the action research and The Philosophical worldview. I have all this with great efficiency and made me more attracted towards this topic. The importance of the blogs associated with the management of the business has greatly helped me in the learning process along with the basic dissimilarities that exist between the reflective writing and a bl og. A session for clearing the quarries was conducted on the 4th week and so I revealed every queries that I was having associated with the blogs and the subjects that were related to the previous classes lectures and after that we were made to discuss about all the quarries that I was having on this day. After the conversation we formed groups to do the group assignment and we have to submit the assignment on the 9th of October. This assisted me a lot to identify the different topics associated to this which includes brainstorming, the different procedures involved in detecting the problem, the ways which are required for the purpose of solving the problem and in what way does the visualisation works as a tool which is used for the process of design thinking. The discussion on this topic assisted me to learn various things which includes the basic thoughts which comes in my mind. The thoughts came in my mind due to brainstorming amongst a group. I also learnt that 10 factors are include d for the process of design thinking and this 10 factors in terms includes 4 basic questions and this questions are what is, what if, what wows and what works. We were also taught about the processes that includes the way of detecting the problems and how those problems could be solved. Examples included different types of pictures. One example included a short heighted man and a washing machine. The man was facing problems in using the washing machine as he was not able to take out the cloths inside the machine due his short height. There were also many other examples shown to us for this topic. Few things like the incubation, bay protection and many more were included in the discussion covered on this day. Various activities that were performed inside the class were very much interesting to me. One such activity was that the tutor gave a sheet consisting of many rounds and we were instructed by the tutor to draw whatever was coming in our first I was very much confused but when the instructions were provided to us it become very much easy. The second activity was, we were shown pictures of various objects containing some defects and we were instructed to detect those problems and graph a method for solving those problems by use of brainstorming this made me very much proud of myself after following the instructions provided. When the activities were over the tutor showed us various problem solving methods and finally the day ended with visualisation performed by us. The 5th week of the discussion included many things like journey mapping, value chain, and value network. On this day we formed groups for doing the 2nd assignment. We were given explanations about the topic of journey mapping in an easy way that it was very perfect for me to understand. Few significant stages that are involved in this procedure are selecting the customers, interviews are to be conducted, themes are to be studied and journey mapping for each person. We did different types of activities regarding journey mapping. On this day the professor showed us how to analyse the value chain and in what ways the values are summed up with the product and for supporting that fact he showed us some examples which included the customer from the suppliers and few things that are included in this customers from the supplier are receiving of the raw materials, the manufacture of the products, distribution of the products, marketing and selling of the products. A market analysis is to be performed by us after the product has been sold. For the purpose of development, we need to perform a research. On this day we were shown about the generic values and taught us that it is almost same as the topic of value chain. We were also taught about the primary activities and also the process of supporting. Relevant example of the UGG Australia was shown to us for the was On this day of lecture for teaching us how to add a value to the product. At the end of the lecture we discussed about the ideas that are associated with the assignment. Discussions were also held regarding the ways of implementing the value chain for the company. Discussions were held regarding the topics Mind Mapping initially helping me to form Mind Mappings similar to the posters, slides and many more. When the lecture ended we discussed about what is research and what are the required approaches for doing the research. A small information was provided to us regarding the different types of approaches whic h includes the quantitative and qualitative to us. And we were also instructed that more explanation will be provided to us on the following class. Research design issues like the research approaches, data types, data resources, ethics and ethical co creation were taught to us on the 6th class. Revision was done by me before the class started. I learnt about the tools related to design thinking which helps in creating new innovations. Discussions regarding the structured interviews were held that contained the Qualitative and the Quantitative that are almost same as the questioner that was given to us along with the structured question. We were also given a brief Explanation about the semi-structured and the structured. Again few examples were shown to us for the purpose of explaining and the examples included the challenges that are faced by being a part-time student. A brainstorming session was followed after the discussion about the focus interview that is mostly used in the Delphi method that is included in the Qualitative perspective was discussed. I learnt about the basic dissimilarities among the Delphi method and the pan el discussion. This discussion helped me to learn that in the Delphi method only the expert is allowed to speak on the topic. I also learnt about the Participant vs the non-participant interviews after the tutor sowed us different tables that comprises of the information charts and including the ethics that are associated with the process of design research. The process of planning to perform an ethical research by considering the ethical issues were also shown to us during the class along with the interview involved in the design and the unstructured interviews with some tips that are necessary for facing an interview. For the purpose of explaining the topic the tutor showed us a video. The 7th week involved the topics of design prototyping and there were numerous activities which included the development of concept and the testing of the assumptions were performed inside the class. We also discussed about the main principles of rapid prototyping. By the use of 2D prototyping was explained along with the early rapid prototyping with some examples on paper. Rapid prototyping was also shown to us by the use of 3D which included more details and features. Robotic hands and 3D printing were used as an example for explaining the alternative rapid prototyping. The tutor showed us the techniques of prototyping that includes sketching, story boarding, paper prototyping, wire framing and Physical prototyping. Demonstration was presented to us by the use of a mouse and a joystick which were used in the 1960s. for better understanding of the prototypes various activities were done inside the class. I understand the benefits and the drawbacks related with the rapid prototyping. Design thinking involves few tools and the main tools were explained to us on the class of 8th week. Few tools that are included in the process of design thinking process are Learning Launch, Real Launch, Launch Readiness plan. Discussions were done about the group projects with few samples like the Learning launch in Norway, trailing of the sales of a full smoking cessation program through the internet, Pharmacies (like Nicorette itself) and Employers. We took active parts in the activities performed inside the class. Taking of the prototype from some other group and to give feedback and to receive feedback from the other group who has taken our prototype was the activity performed inside the class on this day. Later we discussed about the real launch that includes the two components and they are successful learning launch and unsuccessful learning launch which includes the immediate launces and the delayed launches which in terms are convoluted in the process of successful knowledg e and for killing the thoughts and for tabling of the thoughts in the unsuccessful learning launches. I also learnt that something new is offered to the market for the first time and this requires a very careful plan. We also Discussed about the topics which included the Entrepreneurial marketing campaign, Marketing, Persona and Competitor analysis on the 9th week. I have gained knowledge about the process in which the Design Thinking and Entrepreneurial marketing is discussed along with the persona. During the process of doing the class activities we discussed about the persona that we were going to include in the 2nd report. Three competitors that are direct competitors, indirect competitors and future competitors were also discussed by us on this day. The tutor also explained to us the Competitor grid by using some suitable example. Another activity that was included on this day was the discussion about the real competitor in my innovative ideas and what are essential needs for presenting those competitors in the report. Explanations about the 4Ps of the marketing mix for the products, price, promotion and the place was done after this and it was also told to us that this are the main component s of marketing. Need of providing channels in communication and the main channels includes the social media, digital platform, traditional media word of mouth and the partners. After completing all the classes, I have learnt what are the different problems in the process of design thinking and what are the necessary steps that are to be taken for the problems to be solved. I have also learnt the steps for creating a blog along with the essential needs for developing innovative thoughts and to apply those new plans for the problems to get solved. Many live examples that we have seen has helped me in the learning process. I have developed a new action plan for developing a new software for the purpose of showing the things that I have learnt in the course of design it. This action plan is based on the learning outcome of the course. The basic steps that are included in the development process of a software are: Gathering of the requirement and analysis: the process includes the collection of the different things that are required for the development of a new software. After the collection of the requirements a analysis is to be performed for the purpose of validating the essential requirements and to use those requirements for developing the new software. After all this analysis and collection of the requirements a paperwork is to be done for the purpose of moving on to the next phase of software development. Design: in this step we need to design the software in a proper way by the use of proper requirements that were gathered in the 1st phase of the process of developing a new software. By the use of System Designing we can specify the required hardwares and all the essential elements. In this step it is possible to sketch the overall design of the software. It was becoming very easy for me to perform the essential steps in this phase after I have attended the lectures. Coding: This phase of the software development requires the most of the time as it is the modt important part of the software that is to be developed therefore it will almost require about 2 months. This is the longest step as because of the fact that it will help in the main functioning of the software. So after attending the classes it is very much important for me as my faults can lead to the total failure of the software. The classes have helped me a lot in designing the codes required for the process of software development. Testing: When the 3rd phase of the process is completed it is the time for the testing of the codes that has been developed in the 3rd phase. This testing process is done so as to detect the problems and to solve the difficulties faced during the process of testing. The codes are to be seen from different points of views as I have learnt that evert aspect should be seen from a different point of view. Deployment: This is a another process of testing in which the product is launched into the market so that the product can be tested in the real world. The main problems arise in the real world so feedback needs to be taken from the customers end so as to detect the problems and find ways of solving them. Maintenance: the most important and the final step of software development is the maintenance. The process of solving the problems faced by the customers will be included in this phase. The classes that I have attended has greatly helped me to understand the problems and to find ways for solving those problems. Bibliography: Acar, S., Runco, M. A. (2015). Thinking in multiple directions: Hyperspace categories in divergent thinking.Psychology of Aesthetics, Creativity, and the Arts,9(1), 41. Alexander, S. (2013). Innovation journey: design thinking in the value chain. InProceedings of the 27th Australian and New Zealand Academy of Management Conference: Managing on the Edge: 4-6 December 2013, Hobart, Tasmania, Australia. Bardach, E., Patashnik, E. M. (2015).A practical guide for policy analysis: The eightfold path to more effective problem solving. CQ press. Ben Mahmoud?Jouini, S., Midler, C., Silberzahn, P. (2016). Contributions of Design Thinking to Project Management in an Innovation Context.Project Management Journal,47(2), 144-156. Boss, S. (2015).Real-World Projects: How do I design relevant and engaging learning experiences?(ASCD Arias). ASCD. Brown, A. H., Green, T. D. (2015).The essentials of instructional design: Connecting fundamental principles with process and practice. Routledge. Creswell, J. W., Poth, C. N. (2017).Qualitative inquiry and research design: Choosing among five approaches. Sage publications. Frensch, P. A., Funke, J. (Eds.). (2014).Complex problem solving: The European perspective. Psychology Press. Friedman, S. L., Scholnick, E. K. (2014).The developmental psychology of planning: Why, how, and when do we plan?. Psychology Press. Geissdoerfer, M., Bocken, N. M., Hultink, E. J. (2016). Design thinking to enhance the sustainable business modelling processA workshop based on a value mapping process.Journal of Cleaner Production,135, 1218-1232. Gobble, M. M. (2014). The persistence of brainstorming.Research-Technology Management,57(1), 64-67. Goldman, S., Zielezinski, M. B., Vea, T., Bachas-Daunert, S., Kabayadondo, Z. (2016). CAPTURING MIDDLE SCHOOL STUDENTSUNDERSTANDINGS OF DESIGN THINKING.Taking Design Thinking to School: How the Technology of Design Can Transform Teachers, Learners, and Classrooms, 76. Gyabak, K., Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A., Ray, J. (2015). Teachers using designerly thinking in K-12 online course design.Journal of Online Learning Research,1(3), 253-274. Hawthorne, G., Saggar, M., Quintin, E. M., Bott, N., Keinitz, E., Liu, N., ... Reiss, A. L. (2016). Designing a Creativity Assessment Tool for the Twenty-First Century: Preliminary Results and Insights from Developing a Design-Thinking Based Assessment of Creative Capacity. InDesign Thinking Research(pp. 111-123). Springer International Publishing. Kolko, J. (2015). Design thinking comes of age.Harvard Business Review,93(9), 66-71. Liedtka, J. (2015). Perspective: Linking design thinking with innovation outcomes through cognitive bias reduction.Journal of Product Innovation Management,32(6), 925-938. Merriam, S. B., Tisdell, E. J. (2015).Qualitative research: A guide to design and implementation. John Wiley Sons. Mohamed, A. D. (2016). The effects of modafinil on convergent and divergent thinking of creativity: a randomized controlled trial.The Journal of Creative Behavior,50(4), 252-267. Montgomery, D. C. (2017).Design and analysis of experiments. John Wiley Sons. Newman, P., Ferrario, M. A., Simm, W., Forshaw, S., Friday, A., Whittle, J. (2015, May). The role of design thinking and physical prototyping in social software engineering. InProceedings of the 37th International Conference on Software Engineering-Volume 2(pp. 487-496). IEEE Press. Pandey, S. (2015). Proto Design Practice: translating design thinking practices to organizational settings.IxDA,27, 129-158. Parkinson, D., Warwick, L. (2017). Stimulating Thinking at the Design Pitch. Storytelling Approach and Impact.The Design Journal,20(sup1), S4509-S4518. Shi, Y. (2015). An optimization algorithm based on brainstorming process.Emerging Research on Swarm Intelligence and Algorithm Optimization, 1-35. Wolstenholme, D., Downes, T., Leaver, J., Partridge, R., Langley, J. (2014). Improving self-efficacy in spinal cord injury patients through" design thinking" rehabilitation workshops.BMJ quality improvement reports,3(1), u205728-w2340.

Monday, April 6, 2020

Oroonoko By Aphra Behn Essays - Novellas, Oroonoko, Aphra Behn

Oroonoko By Aphra Behn In Aphra Behn's Oroonoko, the author expresses her views on a African American slave openly and passionately, which in the Seventeenth century was unsuited for a person , let alone a woman, to do. By establishing the story from a first person account there becomes a juxtaposition of both author and character. By doing so the reader is able to feel more passion and anguish towards Oroonoko rather than through some fictional fable. Throughout the story Behn is also taking a stand for women's freedom of writing. Not only is she presenting facts based on an African American, she is taking the utmost liberty and honor in doing so, and in turn she is able to convince the readers of her time that Oroonoko is more than just a slave; he is a tragic hero. Aphra Behn gives herself the authority to write about the life of a slave, Oroonoko, due to her encounters with him and hearing from Oroonoko himself the story of his life. Behn establishes her authority within the opening lines and reminds her audience of her position as narrator by mentioning her personal role in the story. In the first few lines, Behn establishes her authority, "I was myself an eyewitness to a great part of what you will find here set down, and what I could not be witness of, I received from the mouth of the chief actor in this history, the hero himself, who gave us the whole transactions of his youth...." (Demaria Jr. 421) In this passage, Behn's portrays the authority of her subject matter. She uses first person perspective and declares that she was indeed a personal acquaintance of Oroonoko himself and received from him his life story. For the rest of Oroonoko's story, Behn was herself, "an eyewitness". This passage also clarifies that the author and narrator are one entity. Behn acknowledges that it is she who writes this story, through her own narration. In other words, the narrator is not only a character of the story, but the authoritative author. Behn proves herself to be a reliable source for the writing of Oroonoko due to the utmost respect she has for him as well as the trust he had for her. She praises his goodness while revealing turbulent times for the Prince that she had witnessed. Throughout the first half of the story, Behn maintains an air of authority through various devices. She speaks to her readers almost as if in an informal conversation, using contractions such as "'em". Behn also frequently uses asides such as in the following, "There is a certain ceremony in these cases to be observed, which I forgot to ask him how performed; but 'twas concluded on both sides that, in obedience to him..." There is a certain authority to be felt when one relays a personal story, even though they themselves may not be the principle character. This is exactly what Behn does. She draws her readers into an intimate account of a personal story. To strengthen her position, Behn's account is wrought with detail. One would assume that the readers of her time would be quite unfamiliar with her subject matter, so she seeks to enlighten with descriptions of detail. In other words, the narrator is not a character of the story, but the authoritative author. The reader is able to trust Behn's story as reliable since she was present for a majority of his life and talks of how she perceived him as well as how others treated him. The reader is guaranteed Behn's sincerity and honesty in writing the story when she declares " . . . and do assure my reader the most illustrious courts could not have produced a braver man, both for greatness of courage and mind, a judgement more solid, a wit more quick, and a conversation more sweet and diverting." (Demaria Jr. 424) Behn is not only captivated by the genuine and rare characteristics of his inner beauty, but his outer beauty as well and goes into detail of his handsome figure and beautiful facial features and the fine color of his skin. Around the time she wrote the story, it might not have been accepted by some people for a Caucasian women to admire the beauty of an African man and tell people about it. Behn takes a risk and therefore earns more of her readers' confidence that she is revealing as accurate an account for his life as she can. One would assume that the

Sunday, March 8, 2020

Functional Equivalences

Functional Equivalences Functional equivalence refers to the role or function that behavior plays in different cultures. One cannot assume that behaviors play the same role or function across cultures; therefore, assumptions made about the function of behavior in a cultural group must be verified. This concept extends to include the differences in people's perceptions about, and responses to, a particular product or activity according to their cultural features. The value that is placed on products or social activities can be culture sensitive and the exact purpose that each serves across national and cultural boundaries should be thoroughly established in marketing research.To illustrate how perceptions of the sample population may vary across cultural patterns, we can consider two different countries, the Netherlands and the United States, and compare substantial differences in individual interpretations of products such as bicycles.Not that it's unknown in other countries, but the Netherlands is the coun try where almost everybody bikes.Working bicycleVirtually every mile of road is paralleled with its own bike lane. Bicycles are extended the same respect as cars, even having their own designated traffic lights. In the Netherlands, the roads are narrow and parking spaces are hard to come by and usually quite expensive. Whereas in Holland, hundreds of miles of lush green farmlands and shoreline are accessible only by bicycle, making it thus the most valuable mode of transportation among the Dutch, in the United States a bicycle can be said to serve solely as a recreational sport and seldom used as an equally comfortable and reliable means to travel within highways. Consequently, in the Netherlands, competing products would consist of other similar modes of transportation, while in the United States relevant means of recreation would be seen as different products that compete against bicycles.Another example that demonstrates how people...

Friday, February 21, 2020

Discuss the British foreign policy under Tony Blair with respect to Essay

Discuss the British foreign policy under Tony Blair with respect to balancing the trans-Atlantic alliance and maintaining relations with the European Union - Essay Example ts of the United Kingdom after the events of September 11, who have openly expressed their strong resentment toward extended British participation in the U.S. intervention in Iraq, were stunned but later the events of 7/7 London bombings escorted Britain to think from a different point of view. The goal of the United Kingdom, and of Blair, has been to act as a bridge between the United States and Europe, fostering dialogue between the two power blocs in the hopes of preserving the Atlantic alliance that has survived for 60 years. (Janelle Osmann) As Blair is in a desperate need to prove himself as a world leader and establish himself as a peacemaker, he wants U.S instead of taking the matters emotionally, he must concentrate on the matter of pushing for a resolution to the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. Blair hopes that his support in Iraq will make America to think several times before making an attempt and to think seriously on expedition of a lasting peace between the Israelis and Palestinians. Thus, by coordinating American efforts with E.U interests, Blair is aiming to narrow the trans-Atlantic lacuna and thrust himself back into the good graces of international diplomats. (Janelle Osmann) Blair, being conscious in maintaining the balance between transatlantic alliance and EU possesses the view that conflict is created on the basis of a misunderstanding. At times he has declared that the class struggle was over and that the formation of the Labor Party through a break with the Liberals was a mistake. But the conflict of interests between the US and Europe cannot be overcome so easily. Blair recognizes that the Europeans, however tentatively, are seeking to challenge US domination through the EU project. At one point, he asks â€Å"Europe is to become 25 nations, one Europe for the first time since Charlemagne, but will it be as a union of nation states or as a centralized superstate? (Chris Marsden) The Constitutional Treaty sets out to address the new